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Last Updated: Oct 23, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates
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Academic Integrity

Students are expected to conduct themselves with integrity and honestly while completing course requirements and complying with college academic regulations. Violations of academic integrity include, but are not limited to, the following:

(A) Plagiarism: The presentation of another’s writing or another’s ideas as one’s own without citation;

(B) Cheating: The use of provision of any unauthorized assistance when completing an exam or individual assignment;

(C) Falsification: The  fabrication of signatures, notes, reports, data, or other academic information; the submission of reports, papers or exams prepared by a person other than the student; this includes purchasing or selling term papers or other academic materials.

(D) Procurement: the distribution or acceptance of prior or current lab assignments, exams or other academic matter without the permission of the instructor; and

(E) Co-submission: the submission, without permission of the instructor, of academically required materials previously or contemporaneously submitted in whole or in substantial part in another course.

For more information, please refer to the D'Youville Undergraduate Catalog's section entitled Academic Policies and Procedures found here:



Citations that happen in the body of your paper use superscript numerals. There are two ways to do this:

  1. The keyboard shortcut CTRL, Shift, and the plus sign (+) at the same time. You may have to redo this shortcut after the citation to go back to typing normally.
  2. There is an option located in the Home ribbon of Microsoft word within the Font box as shown in the screenshotm, as indicated by the red underline:


Each reference should be cited in the text, tables, or figures in consecutive numerical order by means of superscript Arabic numerals. These go outside of periods and commas but inside colons and semicolons.

Special considerations: (1) When there are 2 more more references being cited at a given point in the paper, use hypens to join the first and last numbers together and use commas without space to seperate other parts of multiple citations. (2) Only the author's last name, for up to two authors, is used for in-text citations; for references with more than 2 authors, include the first author's last name followed by "et al."

      Doe7 reported on the survey.
      Doe and Roe8 reported on the survey.
      Doe et al9 reported on the survey.
      As reported previously,1,3-8,19
      The derived data were as follows3,4


Works Cited


Entire book

(list up to six authors, for anymore list the first three followed by “et al”)

Author’s last name Author’s first initials. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Modlin J, Jenkin O. Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004.

Edited book

(such as textbooks)

Author(s), eds. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Armitage JO, Antman KH, eds. High Dose Cancer Therapy: Pharmacology, Hematopoietins, Stem Cells. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1995.

A book chapter

(this example is for an edited book, but it can be adopted for a non-edited book as well)

Author of chapter. Title of chapter. In: Editor’s name, ed. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher; year: chapter or page number.

Solensky R. Drug Allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin.In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.

Organization as author

(sometimes the author of a document is not a person, but rather a group of people. In this case, use as much relevant information as possible)

Organization. Title of book/report. Place of publication: Publisher; year

World Health Organization. Injury: A Leading Cause of Global Burden of Disease, 2000. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002


Print articles

(list up to six authors, for anymore list the first three followed by “et al”)

Author(s) of article. Article title. Journal Title. Year;Volume(issue):pages

Keppel K, Pamuk E, Lynch J, et al. Methodologic issues in measuring health disparities. Vital Health Stat 2. 2005;(141):1-16

Online articles with DOI

(The DOI is meant to create a persistent link to an item existing on the internet. You can find and lookup DOIs at

Author(s). Article title. Journal Title. Year;Volume(issue);pages.doi:xx.xxxx

Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA,  Watanabe Y. The conserved kinetochore protein shugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 2004;427(6974):510-517. doi:10.1038/nature02312

Online articles without DOI

(If you cannot find the DOI of an article, AMA dictates that you find the stable URL from the journal’s webpage and link to it; linking from the databases will not work)

Author(s). Article title. Journal Title. Year;Volume(issue);pages. URL. Accessed date.

Hay PJ. Understanding bulimia. Aust Fam Physician. 2007;36(9):708-712. Accessed October 11, 2009.

Organization as author

(sometimes the author of a document is not a person, but rather a group of people. In this case, use as much relevant information as possible)

Organization/responsible party. Article title. Journal Title. Year;Volume(issue);pages. URL. Accessed date.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Changes in receiving preventive care services among US adults with diabetes, 1997-2007. Prev Chronic Dis. 2010;7(3);A56. Accessed September 22, 2014.    



(include the following data, if available; use as much relevant information as possible)

Author(s)/responsible party/organization. Title of specific item cited. Name of website. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

World Health Organization. Research for universal health coverage: World health report 2013. World Health Organization. Published August, 2013. Accessed September 22, 2014.

Videos & DVDs

Author. Title [format]. Publisher place: Publisher; Year

Ayers S. Terrorism: Medical response [DVD]. Edgartown, MA: Emergency Film Group; 2002.

Theses & Dissertations

Author. Title. City: University; year

Fenster SD. Cloning and Characterization of Piccolo, a Novel Component of the Presynaptic Cytoskeletal Matrix [dissertation]. Birmingham: University of Alabama; 2000

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Who is AMA?

The American Medical Association (AMA) is one of the largest communities of health care practioners and students. The associations is most known for their publication Journal of the American Medical Associtation, which is one of the most influental, weekly publications in the world of medical journals. Their mission is to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health.

Additional Resources

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